Addition – used to connect two pieces of related information.Contrast – used to connect two pieces of information that disagree with each other.Summary – used to introduce a conclusion or overview of information.Time – used to relate the sequence of events, i.e. what happens first, second and so on.Result – used to connect the result of an action.
Reason – used to connect the cause of an action.
Let’s warm up by categorising the following linking words by their functions.
In the task above we have three linking words used for addition. Read the sentences below, there are minor differences in meaning between the linking words
- The book received a bad review because it was poorly written. Moreover, the reviewer said that the plot didn’t make sense.
- Learning a language has been shown to improve a child’s brain in a number of ways. Furthermore, it allows the child to communicate with a wider range of people.
- The space probe will visit several planets in the outer solar system. In addition, it will observe several comets.
Complete the language description with the correct word or phrase from the box based on the sentences above.
Notice how in all three example sentences above, the writer uses the linking word or phrase at the beginning of the sentence and it is followed by a comma (,).
It is also possible, but less usual, to use these linking words and phrases between two clauses in a sentence. See the example below.
They achieved a high success rate and, furthermore, received the thanks of the whole group.
clause 1 = They achieved a high success rateand
clause 2 = received the thanks of the whole group.
A comma is used both before and after the linking word.
Choose the appropriate linking word or phrase to complete the text. Watch out for capital letters!
Notice how the writer uses some linking words at the beginning of the sentence while others are used at the end. For a high band score, you need to show that your language control is flexible. This means that you know how to use different linking words in different positions in the sentence across the essay.
It’s important to use these lessons to help develop your vocabulary. If there are any new words in the text above, look them up in a dictionary and write down their definition(s) and example usages in a vocabulary book. Review your vocabulary book so that you are confident when using the words in the test.
Here is an example:
synonym of self-confidence
Meaning: To have self-worth is to think of yourself as a positive person.
Example: I feel like my self-worth has increased since I started learning the piano.
Notice how the writer here uses a ‘concessive’ paragraph structure. The writer starts by describing an opinion he/she disagrees with, and then the writer argues against it. This is a common way to structure an argument in academic writing.