Matching Sentence Endings
- Skim read the text very quickly to get the gist and identify the focus of each paragraph. This will help you go back and find answers later.
- Read the instructions carefully. What exactly do you have to write on your answer paper? Do you have to use all of the sentence endings?
- Look at the sentence beginnings and underline key words such as nouns, numbers or modal verbs.
- Look at the sentence endings for any easy answers.
- Next, starting with sentence 1, find the place in the text where it is mentioned and read it carefully. If more than one answer seems possible, try and spot synonyms (words with the same meaning) or paraphrasing (phrases with the same meaning) which can help you.
- Make sure that all your answers create grammatically correct sentences.
- In the test, write you answers on your answer paper straight away. You will not receive any extra time to transfer your answers.
Complete each sentence with the correct ending A-J from the box below. Write only the letter. You do not need to use all of the sentence endings.
- We can see a paraphrase in the first paragraph: …strawberries and other fruit may help prevent cognitive decline.
- and …prevent Alzheimer’s and other neurodegenerative diseases associated with aging.
2. In non-human tests fisetin was shown to reduce swelling of an organ.
- The text says: fisetin, a compound found in strawberries, helped reduce brain inflammation…
- Brain inflammation is a paraphrase of swelling of an organ.
3. Specialists believe more testing should be carried out to find out the benefits of fisetin.
- This is a paraphrase of Mahar’s quote: “there hasn’t been enough serious testing of the compound.”
4. Fisetin has been studied for over 10 years.
- This is a paraphrase of the sentence Maher has been studying the compound for more than a decade.
5. Mahar wants to soon begin controlled testing of fisetin on people.
- We can see the connections to this sentence: The next step, Maher hopes, is to partner with another company or group to conduct human trials of the compound.
6. Alzheimer’s is an increasing problem around the world.
- The text states that fisetin may be used to help prevent Alzheimer’s and other forms of dementia, a growing problem as the world’s population continues to age.
7. Almost a quarter of the world’s population is predicted to be over the age of 60 by the year 2050.
- This is a paraphrase of By 2050, UNFPA estimates that 22% of the population will be 60 and older.
8. A reduction in the number of cases of cognitive diseases suffered by the elderly will reduce the predicted burden on health services in the future.
- We have many synonyms and paraphrasing here – reduction/decline, cognitive diseases/Alzheimer’s and dementia, burden on health services/shortage of medical care.
- A decline in Alzheimer’s and dementia may help reduce the expected shortage of medical care professionals needed to treat aging patients.
A Compound in Strawberries May Prevent Cognitive Decline, Research Shows
Researchers at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies found that treating aging mouse models with fisetin, a compound found in strawberries, helped reduce brain inflammation and cognitive decline. The study, authored by Pamela Maher of the Cellular Neurobiology Laboratory at Salk, was published in The Journals of Gerontology Series A. “Companies have put fisetin into various health products, but there hasn’t been enough serious testing of the compound,” said Maher. “Based on our ongoing work, we think fisetin might be helpful as a preventative for many age-associated neurodegenerative diseases, not just Alzheimer’s, and we’d like to encourage more rigorous study of it.”
Maher has been studying the compound for more than a decade. Previous research has found that fisetin reduced memory loss caused by Alzheimer’s in mice, but that study was related to genetic Alzheimer’s. This form of the disease only accounts for 1-3% of cases.
In the team’s most recent study, they fed the prematurely aging mice a daily dose of the compound in their food for seven months. A separate group was fed the same food without fisetin. The team examined certain proteins associated with brain function, inflammation and stress response. After 10 months, Maher said the differences between the two groups was “striking.” Mice fed the fisetin compound had no noticeable differences in their behavior, inflammatory markers or cognitive ability. The group that was not fed fisetin had elevated markers of inflammation and stress, and had difficulty with cognitive tests. The researchers found no acute toxicity in mice treated with fisetin, even when given high doses of the compound.
While Maher acknowledges that mice are not people, she is confident that there are enough similarities to warrant a closer look at the compound. “We think fisetin warrants a closer look, not only for potentially treating sporadic AD, but also for reducing some of the cognitive effects associated with aging, generally,” said Maher. The next step, Maher hopes, is to partner with another company or group to conduct human trials of the compound.
Fisetin is currently sold as a dietary supplement, but those products are not regulated by the FDA. The team has also developed derivatives of the compound that may have enhanced properties, Maher says. “One of the advantages of those is that you can patent them,” she said. “The disadvantage is that to get them into a clinic, you have to go through a lot more regulatory hurdles.”
Maher and her colleagues have also collaborated on research related to other cognitive-protecting compounds. One of those compounds, J147, is almost ready for human testing. The paperwork is being filed with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The team is still in the negotiating phase of securing funding for a Phase 1 clinical trial. The J147 compound is derived from curcumin, a compound found in turmeric.
If proven effective and safe, fisetin may be used to help prevent Alzheimer’s and other forms of dementia, a growing problem as the world’s population continues to age. Aging is, according to the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), one of the most significant trends of this century. One in eight people in the world is over the age of 60. By 2050, UNFPA estimates that 22% of the population will be 60 and older. The Alzheimer’s Association estimates that there are 5.5 million people living with Alzheimer’s disease in the United States alone. Among those 5.5 million people, 5.3 million are 65 and older. Alzheimer’s disease in older individuals is closely linked with other medical issues, such as incontinence, which requires caregivers to take on the additional tasks of changing bed pads (or chux) and adult diapers.
As researchers continue to learn more about compounds and their cognitive-protecting properties, Alzheimer’s cases may begin to decline. A decline in Alzheimer’s and dementia may help reduce the expected shortage of medical care professionals needed to treat aging patients.
The research team is currently trying to secure clinical human trials, but such treatments will likely not be available to the public for years.