Grammar | Band 7 Clauses 1 Series

IELTS Lessons, written by Sam Morgan and Tom Speed

​Students often ask “what do I need to do to get a high band for grammar?”. Well, in order to get a band 7 or higher for grammar, you need to accurately use subordinate clauses in both your speaking and writing. If you don’t use complex sentences with subordinate clauses, then your grammar band will be low. Today we are going to cover the basics of subordinate clauses. We will look at:

  • What a subordinate clause is.
  • What a concessive clause is.
  • What a time clause is.
  • What a reason clause is.
  • What a relative clause is.

For more Band 7 Grammar Lessons, visit:

The Passive Voice
Complex Noun Phrases

What is a subordinate clause?

Read the subordinate clauses below.
  1. Which requires certain raw materials.
  2. When all of the family come together at Christmas.
  3. Although American movies are very popular.​
These clauses seem strange, right? You have probably noticed they are not completely formed ideas. They are fragments which should accompany more information. We are left asking more questions:
  1. What process (requires certain raw materials)?
  2. What happens at Christmas when the family come together?
  3. What is the relevance of American movies?

Let’s take a look at how these questions are answered when we look at the complete sentences. The subordinate clauses are in bold, the main clauses are not.
Main Clause
Subordinate clause

Iron production is a process ​​
which requires certain raw materials
  1. Iron production is a process which requires certain raw materials.
  2. When all of the family come together at Christmas, there is generally a party and lots of gossiping.
  3. Although American movies are very popular, the local movie industry in India is dominant.
Rules:
A subordinate clause cannot stand alone. It must be used with a main clause.

​If the subordinate clause comes before the main clause, then the two must be separated by a comma. This is an important rule to follow as the examiner will be looking out for accurate punctuation of complex sentences.
Now we know what a subordinate clause is, let’s take a look at some common types that you should definitely try to use in your writing and speaking.

Concessive clauses

A concessive clause is a clause which expresses an idea different to the one in the main clause. Look at the examples below.
  1. Although the price of pesticide fell, the overall price of food production rose.
  2. The government continues to fund some groups even though they know they do not receive their support.
  3. Though there are many low cost airlines these days, many people still cannot afford to travel overseas.
  4. Whereas the average global temperature is increasing, some areas are actually experiencing cooling and increased rainfall.
The concessive clause is introduced with a concessive conjunction such as althougheven thoughthough, or whereas. Notice the contrast between the two ideas in the sentence. If the concessive clause is before the main clause, then the two are separated by a comma.

Note: Though is considered to be informal and is used only in speaking.

Concessive Clauses - Activity

People are talking about music, games, hats and films in the first part of the IELTS speaking test. Are the following sentences correct or incorrect?
ARE THESE CLAUSES CORRECT OR INCORRECT
1. Though I listen to a lot of music, I can also play two musical instruments.


2. Although I played indoor games as a child, I also spent a lot of time playing outdoors with my friends.


3. Even though I never studied a musical instrument, but I find it easy to learn guitar by myself.


4. Kids today have a lot of toys whereas we didn't.


5. Although I have an expensive hat, I think it is possible to buy a good quality cheap one.


6. Whereas I like horror films my girlfriend likes action films.


7. I bought a warm hat in Moscow even though I was only there for a day.


8. Although James Cameron’s movies make lots of money, but I think they are generally not very good.





why are these incorrect?
1. Incorrect - There is no contrast between the main and subordinate clause.
2. Correct
​3. Incorrect - 'even though' and 'but' should not be used in the same sentence.
4. Correct
5. Correct
6. Incorrect - no comma separates the subordinate clause and the main clause
​7. Correct
8. Incorrect - Two contrasting conjunctions are used ('although' and 'but').

Time Clauses and Reason clauses

Time and Reason clauses are dependent clauses. These clauses are used to answer questions like When? Or Why?
  • When I was young, it was uncommon for a family to have their own computer. (when was it uncommon?)
  • Because of the extreme temperature, he had a cold shower. (why did he do that?)
  • People bought less in the post-Christmas period since they had spent a lot of money on the festivities. (why did they spend less money?)
  • After reading the instructions, I tried to assemble my new desk. (when did you try to assemble the desk?)
​You are probably familiar with these types of clauses already so let’s move on to the third and final type, relative clauses.

Relative Clauses

Who, whom, whose, which, when, where and that are relative pronouns. If a subordinate clause begins with a relative pronoun, then it is a relative clause. Relative clauses act like adjectives – they describe a noun. There are two kinds of relative clauses.

1. Defining Relative Clauses

​Defining relative clauses define what something is. They give essential information about nouns. Defining relative clauses always follow the noun they describe. Look at these examples.
 
That is the place where I work.
The man who sold me the vegetables was very friendly.

Relative Clauses - Activity

​Choose the correct relative pronoun (who, whose, which, where, when) by clicking on the pronoun, then clicking again on a gap.
when   ·  which   ·  where   ·  who   ·  whose  
Click or touch a word above
1. They are a couple have been happily married for years.
2. The town most people go on holiday is on the coast.
3. Summer is the season many people take time off and go away for a week or so.
4. It is an important thing people from my country learn to do when they are quite young.
5. That is the teacher name I always forget.
​Defining relative clauses are great for paraphrasing (explaining what something is). Doing this effectively needs to be done to get a higher band for lexical resource (LRA) in speaking. If you can explain what something is, even if you don’t know the English word for it, the examiner will notice that the gaps in your vocabulary don’t stop you from communicating effectively. See the example below.
This is a day when people try to reduce their carbon footprint by not using motor vehicles or electricity. (the candidate is talking about Earth Day)
To practice this skill, think of some traditional events, games, clothing or days in your culture for which there is no English word. Describe these traditional things using defining relative clauses. Traditional culture is a common speaking topic.
2. Non-Defining Relative Clauses
These clauses are introduced by a relative pronoun and they add non-essential information about a noun. Look at these examples.

  1. His last painting, which was painted in Amsterdam, sold for over $5 million dollars.
  2. I went to the Louvre in Paris, which I really enjoyed.
 
Notice how the non-defining relative clause and the main clause are separated by commas.
If you need more information about relative clauses, then check out this page for in-depth information from the British Council.​

Subordinate Clauses - Final Activity

People are talking about motor vehicles. Below are some complex sentences. Match the two halves of the sentences together by typing a number next to each sentence.
SELECT THE CORRECT SENTENCE HALVES

1. Although the number of people buying new cars reduced in the second half of the year
which run on electricity rather than petrol.
the overall number of cars on the road went up by a significant amount compared to the previous year.
pollution in many major cities is becoming worse.
no one had any idea how detrimental the fumes were.
because reduced ticket prices will stimulate the public to use it more.
today bicycles have been replaced with motorbikes and scooters.
there has been a vast increase in the number of people using the buses and trains.
when people generally make more journeys in private vehicles.


2. There are cars
which run on electricity rather than petrol.
the overall number of cars on the road went up by a significant amount compared to the previous year.
pollution in many major cities is becoming worse.
no one had any idea how detrimental the fumes were.
because reduced ticket prices will stimulate the public to use it more.
today bicycles have been replaced with motorbikes and scooters.
there has been a vast increase in the number of people using the buses and trains.
when people generally make more journeys in private vehicles.


3. Since the price of petrol started to rise
which run on electricity rather than petrol.
the overall number of cars on the road went up by a significant amount compared to the previous year.
pollution in many major cities is becoming worse.
no one had any idea how detrimental the fumes were.
because reduced ticket prices will stimulate the public to use it more.
today bicycles have been replaced with motorbikes and scooters.
there has been a vast increase in the number of people using the buses and trains.
when people generally make more journeys in private vehicles.


4. The government should subsidize public transport
which run on electricity rather than petrol.
the overall number of cars on the road went up by a significant amount compared to the previous year.
pollution in many major cities is becoming worse.
no one had any idea how detrimental the fumes were.
because reduced ticket prices will stimulate the public to use it more.
today bicycles have been replaced with motorbikes and scooters.
there has been a vast increase in the number of people using the buses and trains.
when people generally make more journeys in private vehicles.


5. Even though cars are becoming more environmentally friendly,
which run on electricity rather than petrol.
the overall number of cars on the road went up by a significant amount compared to the previous year.
pollution in many major cities is becoming worse.
no one had any idea how detrimental the fumes were.
because reduced ticket prices will stimulate the public to use it more.
today bicycles have been replaced with motorbikes and scooters.
there has been a vast increase in the number of people using the buses and trains.
when people generally make more journeys in private vehicles.


6. Winter is the time
which run on electricity rather than petrol.
the overall number of cars on the road went up by a significant amount compared to the previous year.
pollution in many major cities is becoming worse.
no one had any idea how detrimental the fumes were.
because reduced ticket prices will stimulate the public to use it more.
today bicycles have been replaced with motorbikes and scooters.
there has been a vast increase in the number of people using the buses and trains.
when people generally make more journeys in private vehicles.


7. When the combustion engine was first invented,
which run on electricity rather than petrol.
the overall number of cars on the road went up by a significant amount compared to the previous year.
pollution in many major cities is becoming worse.
no one had any idea how detrimental the fumes were.
because reduced ticket prices will stimulate the public to use it more.
today bicycles have been replaced with motorbikes and scooters.
there has been a vast increase in the number of people using the buses and trains.
when people generally make more journeys in private vehicles.


8. Whereas cycling used to be a popular way of getting around in many Asian countries,
which run on electricity rather than petrol.
the overall number of cars on the road went up by a significant amount compared to the previous year.
pollution in many major cities is becoming worse.
no one had any idea how detrimental the fumes were.
because reduced ticket prices will stimulate the public to use it more.
today bicycles have been replaced with motorbikes and scooters.
there has been a vast increase in the number of people using the buses and trains.
when people generally make more journeys in private vehicles.





​Next time you’re speaking or writing try and use plenty of subordinate clauses to make your writing more interesting and more complex. Doing this should push up your band score for grammatical range and accuracy. When you’re reading, look at the grammar of the sentences and see if you can spot the different types of clauses we have studied today.