Learning to notice participle clauses will improve your reading skills. If you use participle clauses in your speaking and writing it will improve your grammatical range and accuracy band score.
Academic Language Analysis
There are many low cost airlines today, which provide cheap travel options within Europe and Asia.
Example 1 is an example of a non-defining relative clause being used to add extra information to a main clause.
There are many low cost airlines today, providing cheap travel options within Europe and Asia.
Example 2 has exactly the same meaning as Example 1. It is considered to be a more complex sentence type as the relative pronoun has been deleted and the active participle (ing verb) has been used. Notice that the active participle can only be used if the meaning is active. Here ‘low cost airlines’ are the active subject.
- Meaning: The new airlines were very successful because they were cheap and operated frequent flights.
- The active participle clause is used to replace the reason clause (because).
‘Having remained popular for several decades,…’
- Meaning: The airlines remained popular for several decades but more recently they have suffered as their operating costs have had to go up.
- A clause starting with ‘having’ is commonly used to start a sentence and shows that one action occurred before another. So, in the example, first the companies were successful and later they suffered.