In today's post we are going to practice summary completion, True, False, Not Given, and sentence completion questions.
We also have other Reading Test practice lessons for you:
Reading Test Practice 1 Short Answers and Headings
Reading Test Practice 2 Matching Sentence Endings
Reading Test Practice 3 Matching Headings and Sentence Completion
Reading Test Practice 4 True / False / Not Given
The summary completion task requires you to complete a summary of a part of the reading passage. You must use words from the passage to complete the summary.
Let's try the tips on the Summary Completion question below.
Use no more than 3 words from the passage for each answer.
See our answer guide
1 - medieval folk dance(s)
In paragraph 2 the text states 'it (Morris Dancing) may have acquired elements of medieval folk dance'. Here 'acquired' and 'integrates' have the same meaning.
2 – (working) peasantry
The text tells us that ‘By the mid-17th century, the working peasantry took part in Morris dances’. ‘Took part’ is a paraphrase of ‘were performing’.
3 - suppressed
Still in paragraph 3, we learn that ‘The Puritan government of Oliver Cromwell, however, suppressed Whitsun Ales’. ‘Religious government’ is a general reference to ‘the Puritan government’.
4 - industrial revolution
Paragraph 4 states ‘Morris dancing continued in popularity until the industrial revolution and its accompanying social changes’. The summary uses the phrase ‘social upheaval’ rather than ‘social changes’.
5 - (local) memory
Again in paragraph 4, we see ‘by the late 19th century Morris dancing was fast becoming more a local memory than an activity.’ Remember that ‘the late 1800s’ in the summary is the same as ‘the late 19th century’.
The History of Morris Dancing in England
(1) While the earliest (15th-century) references place the Morris dance in a courtly setting, it appears that the dance became part of performances for the lower classes by the later 16th century; in 1600, the Shakespearean actor William Kempe Morris danced from London to Norwich, an event chronicled in his Nine Daies Wonder (1600).
(2) Almost nothing is known about the folk dances of England prior to the mid-17th century. While it is possible to speculate on the transition of "Morris dancing" from the courtly to a rural setting, it may have acquired elements of medieval folk dance, such proposals will always be based on an argument from silence as there is no direct record of what such elements would have looked like. In the Elizabethan period, there was significant cultural contact between Italy and England, and it has been suggested that much of what is now considered traditional English folk dance, and especially English country dance, is descended from Italian dances imported in the 16th century.
(3) By the mid-17th century, the working peasantry took part in Morris dances, especially at Whitsun. The Puritan government of Oliver Cromwell, however, suppressed Whitsun Ales and other such festivities. When the crown was restored by Charles II, the springtime festivals were restored. In particular, Whitsun Ales came to be celebrated on Whitsunday, as the date was close to the birthday of king Charles II.
(4) Morris dancing continued in popularity until the industrial revolution and its accompanying social changes. However, by the late 19th century Morris dancing was fast becoming more a local memory than an activity. D’Arcy Ferris, a Cheltenham based singer, music teacher and organiser of pageants, became interested in the tradition and sought to revive it. He first encountered Morris dancing in Bidford and organised its revival. Over the following years he took the side (Morris dancing group) to several places in the West Country, from Malvern to Bicester and from Redditch to Moreton in Marsh. By 1910, he and Cecil Sharp, the famous revivalist of English folk music and dance, were in correspondence on the subject.
(5) Several English folklorists were responsible for recording and reviving the tradition in the early 20th century, often from a bare handful of surviving members of mid-19th-century village sides. Among these, the most notable are Cecil Sharp, Maud Karpeles, and Mary Neal.
(6) Boxing Day 1899 is widely regarded as the starting point for the Morris revival. Cecil Sharp was visiting at a friend's house in Headington, near Oxford, when the Headington Quarry Morris side arrived to perform. Sharp was intrigued by the music and collected several tunes from the side's musician, William Kimber; not until about a decade later, however, did he begin collecting the dances, spurred and at first assisted by Mary Neal, a founder of the Espérance Club (a dressmaking co-operative and club for young working women in London), and Herbert MacIlwaine, musical director of the Espérance Club. Neal was looking for dances for her girls to perform, and so the first revival performance was by young women in London.
(7) In the first few decades of the 20th century, several men's sides were formed, and in 1934 the Morris Ring was founded by six revival sides. In the 1950s and especially the 1960s, there was an explosion of new dance teams, some of them women's or mixed sides. At the time, there was often heated debate over the propriety and even legitimacy of women dancing the Morris, even though there is evidence as far back as the 16th century that there were female Morris dancers. There are now male, female and mixed sides to be found.
(8) Partly because women's and mixed sides are not eligible for full membership of the Morris Ring, two other national (and international) bodies were formed, the Morris Federation and Open Morris. All three bodies provide communication, advice, insurance, instructionals (teaching sessions) and social and dancing opportunities to their members. The three bodies co-operate on some issues, while maintaining their distinct identities.
"Morris Dance" wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Morris_dance, Accessed 14.8.2017
|11.||The beginning of the twentieth century saw several new Morris dancing groups .|
|12.||By the fifties and sixties, male, female and sides were becoming more common around the country.|
|13.||Many people at the time questioned the of women performing this traditionally male dance.|
|14.||Sides containing women are still not for entrance into Morris dancing’s main governing and organizing ring.|
|15.||The three main bodies in the world of Morris dancing provide in which members can receive expert tuition and choreography.|
In paragraph 7, ‘the first few decades’ is paraphrased as ‘the beginning’.
12 - By the fifties and sixties, male, female and mixed sides were becoming more common around the country.
The sentence in paragraph 7 is paraphrased: ‘In the 1950s and especially the 1960s, there was an explosion of new dance teams, some of them women's or mixed sides.’
13 - Many people at the time questioned the propriety of women performing this traditionally male dance.
From paragraph 7: ‘At the time, there was often heated debate over the propriety and even legitimacy of women dancing the Morris’. ‘Heated debate’ is paraphrased as ‘Many people… questioned’. ‘Dancing the Morris’ is paraphrased as ‘performing’.
14 - Sides containing women are still not eligible for entrance into Morris dancing’s main governing and organizing ring.
In the final paragraph we learn that ‘women's and mixed sides are not eligible for full membership of the Morris Ring’. ‘full membership’ is paraphrased as ‘entrance’.
15 - The three main bodies in the world of Morris dancing provide instructionals in which members can receive expert tuition and choreography.
The text says ‘All three bodies provide communication, advice, insurance, instructionals (teaching sessions) and social and dancing opportunities to their members.’ ‘Teaching sessions’ include ‘tuition’ and ‘choreography’. Remember that ‘teaching sessions’ cannot be an answer since the instructions tells us to use 1 word only.
For more practice, go to lesson 6 of the Reading Practice Series!
If you haven't done the other passages in the test, try those first.
This passage contains the question types:
- Matching information / headings to paragraphs
- Identifying the writers views (yes / no / not given)
- Summary completion
Helium's Future up in the Air
B) Helium itself is not rare; there is actually a plentiful supply of it in the cosmos. In fact, 24 per cent of our galaxy’s elemental mass consists of helium, which makes it the second most abundant element in our universe. Because of its lightness, however, most helium vanished from our own planet many years ago. Consequently, only a miniscule proportion – 0.00052%, to be exact – remains in earth’s atmosphere. Helium is the by-product of millennia of radioactive decay from the elements thorium and uranium. The helium is mostly trapped in subterranean natural gas bunkers and commercially extracted through a method known as fractional distillation.
C) The loss of helium on Earth would affect society greatly. Defying the perception of it as a novelty substance for parties and gimmicks, the element actually has many vital applications in society. Probably the most well known commercial usage is in airships and blimps (non-flammable helium replaced hydrogen as the lifting gas du jour after the Hindenburg catastrophe in 1932, during which an airship burst into flames and crashed to the ground killing some passengers and crew). But helium is also instrumental in deep-sea diving, where it is blended with nitrogen to mitigate the dangers of inhaling ordinary air under high pressure; as a cleaning agent for rocket engines; and, in its most prevalent use, as a coolant for superconducting magnets in hospital MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scanners.
D) The possibility of losing helium forever poses the threat of a real crisis because its unique qualities are extraordinarily difficult, if not impossible to duplicate (certainly, no biosynthetic ersatz product is close to approaching the point of feasibility for helium, even as similar developments continue apace for oil and coal). Helium is even cheerfully derided as a “loner” element since it does not adhere to other molecules like its cousin, hydrogen. According to Dr. Lee Sobotka, helium is the “most noble of gases, meaning it’s very stable and non-reactive for the most part … it has a closed electronic configuration, a very tightly bound atom. It is this coveting of its own electrons that prevents combination with other elements’. Another important attribute is helium’s unique boiling point, which is lower than that for any other element. The worsening global shortage could render millions of dollars of high-value, life-saving equipment totally useless. The dwindling supplies have already resulted in the postponement of research and development projects in physics laboratories and manufacturing plants around the world. There is an enormous supply and demand imbalance partly brought about by the expansion of high-tech manufacturing in Asia.
E) The source of the problem is the Helium Privatisation Act (HPA), an American law passed in 1996 that requires the U.S. National Helium Reserve to liquidate its helium assets by 2015 regardless of the market price. Although intended to settle the original cost of the reserve by a U.S. Congress ignorant of its ramifications, the result of this fire sale is that global helium prices are so artificially deflated that few can be bothered recycling the substance or using it judiciously. Deflated values also mean that natural gas extractors see no reason to capture helium. Much is lost in the process of extraction. As Sobotka notes: "[t]he government had the good vision to store helium, and the question now is: Will the corporations have the vision to capture it when extracting natural gas, and consumers the wisdom to recycle? This takes long-term vision because present market forces are not sufficient to compel prudent practice”. For Nobel-prize laureate Robert Richardson, the U.S. government must be prevailed upon to repeal its privatisation policy as the country supplies over 80 per cent of global helium, mostly from the National Helium Reserve. For Richardson, a twenty- to fifty-fold increase in prices would provide incentives to recycle.
F) A number of steps need to be taken in order to avert a costly predicament in the coming decades. Firstly, all existing supplies of helium ought to be conserved and released only by permit, with medical uses receiving precedence over other commercial or recreational demands. Secondly, conservation should be obligatory and enforced by a regulatory agency. At the moment some users, such as hospitals, tend to recycle diligently while others, such as NASA, squander massive amounts of helium. Lastly, research into alternatives to helium must begin in earnest.
Matching Information / Headings to Paragraphs
Sometimes you must match a heading to a paragraph. If you must do this then the heading must present the main focus of the paragraph.
- Step 1: Read the instructions carefully.
- Step 2: Familiarise yourself with the numbered list of information by skimming each item quickly.
- Step 3: look for and underline keywords in each piece of information. As you do this think of synonyms for the key words. This will help you to identify the information in the passage.
- Step 4: Now you know what you’re looking for and you should have an idea where in the text it is roughly - beginning, middle or end, as you have already skimmed the passage. Now scan over the part of the text you think is correct and find the answer.
Try these steps on the questions below, then check your answers with us.
Questions 27 - 31
Reading passage 3 has six paragraphs, A–F.
Which paragraph contains the following information?
Yes/No/Not Given (Identifying the Writer's Views)
It is often easy to understand the writer’s view when it is stated directly, but sometimes it is implied (suggested). Careful! The writer’s opinion might not be the same as the facts. Also, the writer’s opinion might be different to yours.
- Step 1: Read the instructions carefully.
- Step 2: Skim through all the statements to get an idea of the views you will need to look for.
- Step 3: Read the first statement again carefully. Note the main point or opinion in the statement. Underline the key words.
- Step 4: Skim the passage to find the part which refers to the point/opinion in the statement.
- Step 5: Read this part very carefully. Compare the writer’s view with the statement. If the statement agrees with the writer’s view, write Yes on your answer sheet. If the statement contradicts the writer’s view, write No. If the writer doesn’t give an opinion which agrees or disagrees with the statement, write Not Given.
Let's try out these tips on the following questions.
Questions 32 - 35
Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in Reading passage 3?
Answer Yes, No or Not given to questions 32-35.
33) Helium is a very cold substance.
34) High-tech industries in Asia use more helium than laboratories and manufacturers in other parts of the world.
35) The US Congress understood the possible consequences of the HPA.
We are on to the last part of the IELTS reading test now.
There is a summary of a part of the passage or maybe all of the passage. All of the information in the summary is contained in the reading passage but the words used in the summary will be different. The summary contains gaps and your job is to fill in the gaps with the appropriate word(s) EITHER from a list OR from the passage.
If you are given a list of words, there will be more words than gaps. Only one word choice will be suitable for each gap (the answer) but other words may appear suitable to distract you.
If you are asked to complete the gaps using words from the passage, you must find the appropriate word(s) in the passage. The instructions will tell you how many words you can write in each gap.
- Step 1: Read the instructions carefully. Remember that every IELTS test is different, so the instructions might be different from the example given below.
- Step 2: Skim through the summary to get an idea of the topic.
- Step 3: Decide which section(s) of the passage the summary covers.
- Step 4: Read through the summary.
- Step 5: Predict what kind of information is missing and where in the text you can find it.
- Step 6: Predict what part of speech you need to use. Noun, verb, adjective, etc.
- Step 7: Scan the part of the text you think contains the answer. Find the answer and make sure it fits into the summary grammatically.
- Step 8: Double check your spelling. Bad spelling loses points!
Questions 36 - 40
Complete the summary below.
Choose no more than two words from the passage for each answer.
|Sobotka argues that big business and users of helium need to help look after helium stocks because (36) will not be encouraged through buying and selling alone. Richardson believes that the (37) needs to be withdrawn, as the U.S. provides most of the world’s helium. He argues that higher costs would mean people have (38) to use the resource many times over.|
|People should need a (39) to access helium that we still have. Furthermore, a (40) should ensure that helium is used carefully.|
Academic Reading Test IELTS Band Scores
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About The IELTS Test
Academic Writing Task 1
Academic Writing Task 2
Cause And Effect
Coherence And Cohesion
Complete The Notes
Complete The Table
Frequently Asked Questions
General Training Reading
General Writing Task 1
General Writing Task 2
Listening Section 1
Listening Section 2
Listening Section 3
Listening Section 4
Problem Solution Essay
Speaking Part 1
Speaking Part 2
Speaking Part 3
True / False / Not Given