In today's post we are going to practice summary completion, True, False, Not Given, and sentence completion questions.
We also have other Reading Test practice lessons for you:
Reading Test Practice 1 Short Answers and Headings
Reading Test Practice 2 Matching Sentence Endings
Reading Test Practice 3 Matching Headings and Sentence Completion
Reading Test Practice 4 True / False / Not Given
The summary completion task requires you to complete a summary of a part of the reading passage. You must use words from the passage to complete the summary.
Let's try the tips on the Summary Completion question below.
Use no more than 3 words from the passage for each answer.
See our answer guide
1 - medieval folk dance(s)
In paragraph 2 the text states 'it (Morris Dancing) may have acquired elements of medieval folk dance'. Here 'acquired' and 'integrates' have the same meaning.
2 – (working) peasantry
The text tells us that ‘By the mid-17th century, the working peasantry took part in Morris dances’. ‘Took part’ is a paraphrase of ‘were performing’.
3 - suppressed
Still in paragraph 3, we learn that ‘The Puritan government of Oliver Cromwell, however, suppressed Whitsun Ales’. ‘Religious government’ is a general reference to ‘the Puritan government’.
4 - industrial revolution
Paragraph 4 states ‘Morris dancing continued in popularity until the industrial revolution and its accompanying social changes’. The summary uses the phrase ‘social upheaval’ rather than ‘social changes’.
5 - (local) memory
Again in paragraph 4, we see ‘by the late 19th century Morris dancing was fast becoming more a local memory than an activity.’ Remember that ‘the late 1800s’ in the summary is the same as ‘the late 19th century’.
The History of Morris Dancing in England
(1) While the earliest (15th-century) references place the Morris dance in a courtly setting, it appears that the dance became part of performances for the lower classes by the later 16th century; in 1600, the Shakespearean actor William Kempe Morris danced from London to Norwich, an event chronicled in his Nine Daies Wonder (1600).
(2) Almost nothing is known about the folk dances of England prior to the mid-17th century. While it is possible to speculate on the transition of "Morris dancing" from the courtly to a rural setting, it may have acquired elements of medieval folk dance, such proposals will always be based on an argument from silence as there is no direct record of what such elements would have looked like. In the Elizabethan period, there was significant cultural contact between Italy and England, and it has been suggested that much of what is now considered traditional English folk dance, and especially English country dance, is descended from Italian dances imported in the 16th century.
(3) By the mid-17th century, the working peasantry took part in Morris dances, especially at Whitsun. The Puritan government of Oliver Cromwell, however, suppressed Whitsun Ales and other such festivities. When the crown was restored by Charles II, the springtime festivals were restored. In particular, Whitsun Ales came to be celebrated on Whitsunday, as the date was close to the birthday of king Charles II.
(4) Morris dancing continued in popularity until the industrial revolution and its accompanying social changes. However, by the late 19th century Morris dancing was fast becoming more a local memory than an activity. D’Arcy Ferris, a Cheltenham based singer, music teacher and organiser of pageants, became interested in the tradition and sought to revive it. He first encountered Morris dancing in Bidford and organised its revival. Over the following years he took the side (Morris dancing group) to several places in the West Country, from Malvern to Bicester and from Redditch to Moreton in Marsh. By 1910, he and Cecil Sharp, the famous revivalist of English folk music and dance, were in correspondence on the subject.
(5) Several English folklorists were responsible for recording and reviving the tradition in the early 20th century, often from a bare handful of surviving members of mid-19th-century village sides. Among these, the most notable are Cecil Sharp, Maud Karpeles, and Mary Neal.
(6) Boxing Day 1899 is widely regarded as the starting point for the Morris revival. Cecil Sharp was visiting at a friend's house in Headington, near Oxford, when the Headington Quarry Morris side arrived to perform. Sharp was intrigued by the music and collected several tunes from the side's musician, William Kimber; not until about a decade later, however, did he begin collecting the dances, spurred and at first assisted by Mary Neal, a founder of the Espérance Club (a dressmaking co-operative and club for young working women in London), and Herbert MacIlwaine, musical director of the Espérance Club. Neal was looking for dances for her girls to perform, and so the first revival performance was by young women in London.
(7) In the first few decades of the 20th century, several men's sides were formed, and in 1934 the Morris Ring was founded by six revival sides. In the 1950s and especially the 1960s, there was an explosion of new dance teams, some of them women's or mixed sides. At the time, there was often heated debate over the propriety and even legitimacy of women dancing the Morris, even though there is evidence as far back as the 16th century that there were female Morris dancers. There are now male, female and mixed sides to be found.
(8) Partly because women's and mixed sides are not eligible for full membership of the Morris Ring, two other national (and international) bodies were formed, the Morris Federation and Open Morris. All three bodies provide communication, advice, insurance, instructionals (teaching sessions) and social and dancing opportunities to their members. The three bodies co-operate on some issues, while maintaining their distinct identities.
"Morris Dance" wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Morris_dance, Accessed 14.8.2017
|11.||The beginning of the twentieth century saw several new Morris dancing groups .|
|12.||By the fifties and sixties, male, female and sides were becoming more common around the country.|
|13.||Many people at the time questioned the of women performing this traditionally male dance.|
|14.||Sides containing women are still not for entrance into Morris dancing’s main governing and organizing ring.|
|15.||The three main bodies in the world of Morris dancing provide in which members can receive expert tuition and choreography.|
In paragraph 7, ‘the first few decades’ is paraphrased as ‘the beginning’.
12 - By the fifties and sixties, male, female and mixed sides were becoming more common around the country.
The sentence in paragraph 7 is paraphrased: ‘In the 1950s and especially the 1960s, there was an explosion of new dance teams, some of them women's or mixed sides.’
13 - Many people at the time questioned the propriety of women performing this traditionally male dance.
From paragraph 7: ‘At the time, there was often heated debate over the propriety and even legitimacy of women dancing the Morris’. ‘Heated debate’ is paraphrased as ‘Many people… questioned’. ‘Dancing the Morris’ is paraphrased as ‘performing’.
14 - Sides containing women are still not eligible for entrance into Morris dancing’s main governing and organizing ring.
In the final paragraph we learn that ‘women's and mixed sides are not eligible for full membership of the Morris Ring’. ‘full membership’ is paraphrased as ‘entrance’.
15 - The three main bodies in the world of Morris dancing provide instructionals in which members can receive expert tuition and choreography.
The text says ‘All three bodies provide communication, advice, insurance, instructionals (teaching sessions) and social and dancing opportunities to their members.’ ‘Teaching sessions’ include ‘tuition’ and ‘choreography’. Remember that ‘teaching sessions’ cannot be an answer since the instructions tells us to use 1 word only.
For more practice, go to lesson 6 of the Reading Practice Series!
The question type looks like this:
Choose NO MORE THAN 3 WORDS from the text for each answer.
1. In an emergency, a teacher will either phone the office or _________________.
Skim reading the text first will allow you to come back and easily find the answers for questions in step 3.
Choose NO MORE THAN 3 WORDS from the text for each answer.
Read the questions and underline any key words. Because you skim read the text in step 1, you should have an idea where in the text the answer for each question should be found. Locate the answer and write it. Remember to:
- Think of synonyms (words with similar meanings) of words in the questions to help you to find answers in the text.
- Make sure you don’t write too many words.
- Make sure the words you write fit into the grammar of the sentence.
- Check your spelling.
Complete the sentences below
Choose NO MORE THAN 3 WORDS from the text for each answer.
Type your answers below.
|1.||In an emergency, a teacher will either phone the office or .|
|2.||The signal for evacuation will normally be several .|
|3.||If possible, students should leave the building by the .|
|4.||They then walk quickly to the .|
|5.||will join the teachers and students in the quad.|
|6.||Each class teacher will count up his or her students and mark .|
|7.||After the , everyone may return to class.|
|8.||If there is an emergency at lunchtime, students gather in the quad in .|
This reading passage includes the question types:
If you would like to practice True/False/Not Given and Multiple choice questions, go to reading passage 1.
This is the second section of your IELTS Academic Reading test. You should spend about twenty minutes on it. Read the passage and answer questions 14-26.
The Triune Brain
Although the lizard may stake a claim to its habitat, it exerts total indifference toward the well-being of its young. Listen to the anguished squeal of a dolphin separated from its pod or witness the sight of elephants mourning their dead, however, and it is clear that a new development is at play. Scientists have identified this as the limbic cortex. Unique to mammals, the limbic cortex impels creatures to nurture their offspring by delivering feelings of tenderness and warmth to the parent when children are nearby. These same sensations also cause mammals to develop various types of social relations and kinship networks. When we are with others of “our kind” – be it at soccer practice, church, school or a nightclub – we experience positive sensations of togetherness, solidarity and comfort. If we spend too long away from these networks, then loneliness sets in and encourages us to seek companionship.
Only human capabilities extend far beyond the scope of these two cortexes. Humans eat, sleep and play, but we also speak, plot, rationalise and debate finer points of morality. Our unique abilities are the result of an expansive third brain – the neocortex – which engages with logic, reason and ideas. The power of the neocortex comes from its ability to think beyond the present, concrete moment. While other mammals are mainly restricted to impulsive actions (although some, such as apes, can learn and remember simple lessons), humans can think about the “big picture”. We can string together simple lessons (for example, an apple drops downwards from a tree; hurting others causes unhappiness) to develop complex theories of physical or social phenomena (such as the laws of gravity and a concern for human rights).
The neocortex is also responsible for the process by which we decide on and commit to particular courses of action. Strung together over time, these choices can accumulate into feats of progress unknown to other animals. Anticipating a better grade on the following morning’s exam, a student can ignore the limbic urge to socialise and go to sleep early instead. Over three years, this ongoing sacrifice translates into a first class degree and a scholarship to graduate school; over a lifetime, it can mean ground-breaking contributions to human knowledge and development. The ability to sacrifice our drive for immediate satisfaction in order to benefit later is a product of the neocortex.
Understanding the triune brain can help us appreciate the different natures of brain damage and psychological disorders. The most devastating form of brain damage, for example, is a condition in which someone is understood to be brain dead. In this state a person appears merely unconscious – sleeping, perhaps – but this is illusory. Here, the reptilian brain is functioning on autopilot despite the permanent loss of other cortexes.
Disturbances to the limbic cortex are registered in a different manner. Pups with limbic damage can move around and feed themselves well enough but do not register the presence of their littermates. Scientists have observed how, after a limbic lobotomy2, “one impaired monkey stepped on his outraged peers as if treading on a log or a rock”. In our own species, limbic damage is closely related to sociopathic behaviour. Sociopaths in possession of fully-functioning neocortexes are often shrewd and emotionally intelligent people but lack any ability to relate to, empathise with or express concern for others.
One of the neurological wonders of history occurred when a railway worker named Phineas Gage survived an incident during which a metal rod skewered his skull, taking a considerable amount of his neocortex with it. Though Gage continued to live and work as before, his fellow employees observed a shift in the equilibrium of his personality. Gage’s animal propensities were now sharply pronounced while his intellectual abilities suffered; garrulous or obscene jokes replaced his once quick wit. New findings suggest, however, that Gage managed to soften these abrupt changes over time and rediscover an appropriate social manner. This would indicate that reparative therapy has the potential to help patients with advanced brain trauma to gain an improved quality of life.
1 Triune = three-in-one
2 Lobotomy = surgical cutting of brain nerves
Matching Information from Two Lists
- Step 1: Read the instructions carefully. Can you use an option more than once?
- Step 2: Read the first numbered item.
- Step 3: Briefly familiarise yourself with the ABCD items. Which ones seem correct straight away?
- Step 5: Skim the reading passage to find the section which discusses the numbered item.
- Step 6: Read that section of the reading passage carefully to find the answer.
- Step 7: Finally check the ABCD list and select the item which best matches the information in the reading passage. If none of them seem to match, you probably need to read more of the passage.
Questions 14 - 22
A | The reptilian cortex
B | The limbic cortex
C | The neo cortex
Answer A, B or C, to questions 14–22.
The text later tells directly ‘The ability to sacrifice our drive for immediate satisfaction in order to benefit later is a product of the neocortex’.
- Step 1: Read the instructions carefully. Can you use your own words or must you use words from the reading passage? How many words are you allowed to use?
- Step 2: Quickly read through all the incomplete sentences to get an idea of what information you will have to find in the passage.
- Step 3: Read the first sentence more carefully. Decide what information you will need, for example, a name or place.
- Step 4: Skim the passage to find the relevant section. Then look back at the incomplete sentence and decide what specific information you need to complete it.
- Step 5: Read that part of the passage more carefully to find the answer. Remember that the correct answer must fit the incomplete sentence grammatically.
- Step 6: Check your spelling is accurate. If your spelling is incorrect you will lose the point. You can use British or American spelling.
Questions 23 - 26
Use no more than two words from the passage for each answer.
|1.||A person with only a functioning reptilian cortex is known as .|
|2.||in humans is associated with limbic disruption.|
|3.||An industrial accident caused Phineas Gage to lose part of his .|
|4.||After his accident, co-workers noticed an imbalance between Gage’s and higher-order thinking.|
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About The IELTS Test
Academic Writing Task 1
Academic Writing Task 2
Cause And Effect
Coherence And Cohesion
Complete The Notes
Complete The Table
Frequently Asked Questions
General Training Reading
General Writing Task 1
General Writing Task 2
Listening Section 1
Listening Section 2
Listening Section 3
Listening Section 4
Speaking Part 1
Speaking Part 2
Speaking Part 3
True / False / Not Given