Certain linking words or phrases can be used either at the beginning of the sentence or in the middle of the sentence. You must pay careful consideration to the punctuation (.,;:'"?!) in each case. In order to receive a higher band for grammar you need to accurately punctuate your writing.
If you haven't done so, have a look at our other linking words lessons:
Linking Words and Phrases Lesson
Linking Words and Phrases Lesson Exercise 1
Linking Words and Phrases Lesson Exercise 2
Linking Words and Phrases Lesson Exercise 3
|It is the opinion of some people that without a high salary an individual cannot be considered successful. , some may argue that if an individual has a low paying job, he or she may have low self-confidence, many people see a link between salary and self-worth. Many believe this to be true, , I am of the opinion that free time may be more valuable for a large portion of the community than struggling for a high salary that may never be attained. An abundance of free time allows the individual to spend more time pursuing interests or skills he or she is directly interested in. , the individual is likely to be much happier and, , is likely to improve skills which he or she believes are important. This would seem to be an indicator of a form of success.|
|, while a high paying job has traditionally been seen as a sign of success, it is clear that there are other ways of measuring success in life, one of which may be to see how much time an individual can spend pursuing interests or skills which he or she places value on.|
Here is an example:
synonym of self-confidence
Meaning: To have self-worth is to think of yourself as a positive person.
Example: I feel like my self-worth has increased since I started learning the piano.
Many students find it difficult to use the correct linking words when they start to study academic English rather than general English. This is the first of our classes that will teach you a wide range of linking words and guide you to use them accurately in your writing. Accurate use of linking words and phrases will improve your score for coherence and cohesion and also your score for lexical range and accuracy (vocabulary).
This word is used to give an idea that supports or adds information to your main idea. It is used before the main verb.
For example, Car sales also increased in Germany.
It is used between the auxiliary verb and the main verb.
For example, Car sales have also increased in Argentina.
This adverb is used at the start of a sentence that is adding similar facts or ideas.
For example, More time needs to be spent educating people about the drawbacks of social media. Similarly, we should teach children about how to correctly make use of the internet.
This word is usually used at the start of a sentence which adds contrasting or surprising information. This word is an academic synonym for but.
For example, The sale of cars fell in the UK. However, overall worldwide sales showed an increase.
This word can be used mid-sentence to link two contrasting clauses but a comma must be used both before and after it.
For example, The sale of cars fell in the UK, however, overall worldwide sales showed an increase.
This adverb can be used at the beginning of a sentence which give the result of something described in the previous sentence.
For example, Sales fell dramatically in the UK. Consequently, the company went bankrupt and closed down.
Exercise 1 | Know the relationship of ideas
There are 8 incomplete sentences. One word has been deleted from each sentence. It is important to understand the function of words (why they are used). The missing word may be used for one of the following functions.
- To add supporting information
- To show contrast
- To show a result
|It is clear that the use of traditional fossil fuels to power vehicles and create the electricity is not sustainable. In certain countries plans have been made to remove petrol and diesel powered cars over the next 15 to 20 years. Both universities and companies are researching appropriate replacement technology and advances in this technology are occurring all the time. 1. , companies and governments are spending more and more on research into renewable energy such as solar power, which can provide cheap energy in the sunny areas of the planet. Wind farms 2. provide a good source of alternative energy, this time for colder, cloudier northern countries such as the UK. 3. , we are seeing big changes in the way that energy is produced in many parts of the world.|
|This technology is reducing the pollution created by electricity production and is 4. becoming more affordable. 5. , there is much work still to be done if we are to save the planet from the dreadful effects of global warming that scientists predict will occur. More must be done to reduce toxic gas emissions from electricity production. 6. , we must drastically reduce the number of fossil fuel powered vehicles on the road. Some polluting energy companies are unwilling to change their businesses, 7. , some are spending more money on renewable energy research. 8. , there is much to feel positive about in terms of the fight against polluting technology but society must keep working together towards the goal of a cleaner healthier world.|
Exercise 2 | Apply Linking words
First, let's look at some common linking words. These are words that we use to connect ideas in our writing. You can also see linking words in a task 2 text here.
- Because the rubric (question) is written in the present tense and no year is given, you should use the present simple to report the data.
- The data doesn’t show a change over time, it shows average numbers of books on loan. Vocabulary used for describing line graphs and bar charts (rise, fall, fluctuate etc.) should not be used to describe this data.
- Write 3 paragraphs. An introduction and 2 body paragraphs.
- An overview of the main trends or features should be included in the introduction. The overview should state which group, on average, borrows the most books.
- The body paragraphs should provide details in the form of statistics.
- Compare and contrast the data about the three different groups of students.
|The data shows the average number of books on loan to individual undergraduates, PhD students and to junior lecturers from a library at a university. , it can clearly be seen PhD students individually borrow the highest number of books followed by junior lecturers, undergraduate students on average borrow the fewest books.|
|in more detail, 11 or more books are on loan to the vast majority of those studying for a doctorate compared a very small minority of those studying at undergraduate level. The proportions are 80% and 12% . , on average two thirds of undergraduate students have 1-5 books on loan, for PhD students this figure is only 5%.|
|4.||, for junior lecturers the pattern appears to be a little different 6 or more books a week are on loan to 99% of individuals in this group. , out of this group 24% borrow 11 or more books, is only a third of the figure for PhD level students is double the figure for undergraduate students.|
We also have a lesson on how to analyse pie charts here.
Note: If the interactive exercises aren't giving you a score, try refreshing the page.
It takes us a long time to make these lessons and we don't want ads on our site. If you would like to support us then we would greatly appreciate a donation. This will ensure we continue to help students like you everywhere!
IELTSTutors.org - All these IELTS lessons are completely free, so enjoy studying and let us know if you have any questions or suggestions!
About The IELTS Test
Academic Writing Task 1
Academic Writing Task 2
Cause And Effect
Coherence And Cohesion
Complete The Notes
Complete The Table
Frequently Asked Questions
General Training Reading
General Writing Task 1
General Writing Task 2
Listening Section 1
Listening Section 2
Listening Section 3
Listening Section 4
Problem Solution Essay
Speaking Part 1
Speaking Part 2
Speaking Part 3
True / False / Not Given