Are you new to IELTS or have you been training for IELTS for a while but you still struggle with cohesion in your writing? If so, this class is for you.
Many students find it difficult to use the correct linking words when they start to study academic English rather than general English. This is the first of our classes that will teach you a wide range of linking words and guide you to use them accurately in your writing. Accurate use of linking words and phrases will improve your score for coherence and cohesion and also your score for lexical range and accuracy (vocabulary).
This word is used to give an idea that supports or adds information to your main idea. It is used before the main verb.
For example, Car sales also increased in Germany.
It is used between the auxiliary verb and the main verb.
For example, Car sales have also increased in Argentina.
This adverb is used at the start of a sentence that is adding similar facts or ideas.
For example, More time needs to be spent educating people about the drawbacks of social media. Similarly, we should teach children about how to correctly make use of the internet.
This word is usually used at the start of a sentence which adds contrasting or surprising information. This word is an academic synonym for but.
For example, The sale of cars fell in the UK. However, overall worldwide sales showed an increase.
This word can be used mid-sentence to link two contrasting clauses but a comma must be used both before and after it.
For example, The sale of cars fell in the UK, however, overall worldwide sales showed an increase.
This adverb can be used at the beginning of a sentence which give the result of something described in the previous sentence.
For example, Sales fell dramatically in the UK. Consequently, the company went bankrupt and closed down.
Exercise 1 | Know the relationship of ideas
There are 8 incomplete sentences. One word has been deleted from each sentence. It is important to understand the function of words (why they are used). The missing word may be used for one of the following functions.
- To add supporting information
- To show contrast
- To show a result
|It is clear that the use of traditional fossil fuels to power vehicles and create the electricity is not sustainable. In certain countries plans have been made to remove petrol and diesel powered cars over the next 15 to 20 years. Both universities and companies are researching appropriate replacement technology and advances in this technology are occurring all the time. 1. , companies and governments are spending more and more on research into renewable energy such as solar power, which can provide cheap energy in the sunny areas of the planet. Wind farms 2. provide a good source of alternative energy, this time for colder, cloudier northern countries such as the UK. 3. , we are seeing big changes in the way that energy is produced in many parts of the world.|
|This technology is reducing the pollution created by electricity production and is 4. becoming more affordable. 5. , there is much work still to be done if we are to save the planet from the dreadful effects of global warming that scientists predict will occur. More must be done to reduce toxic gas emissions from electricity production. 6. , we must drastically reduce the number of fossil fuel powered vehicles on the road. Some polluting energy companies are unwilling to change their businesses, 7. , some are spending more money on renewable energy research. 8. , there is much to feel positive about in terms of the fight against polluting technology but society must keep working together towards the goal of a cleaner healthier world.|
Exercise 2 | Apply Linking words
First, let's look at some common linking words. These are words that we use to connect ideas in our writing. You can also see linking words in a task 2 text here.
- Because the rubric (question) is written in the present tense and no year is given, you should use the present simple to report the data.
- The data doesn’t show a change over time, it shows average numbers of books on loan. Vocabulary used for describing line graphs and bar charts (rise, fall, fluctuate etc.) should not be used to describe this data.
- Write 3 paragraphs. An introduction and 2 body paragraphs.
- An overview of the main trends or features should be included in the introduction. The overview should state which group, on average, borrows the most books.
- The body paragraphs should provide details in the form of statistics.
- Compare and contrast the data about the three different groups of students.
|The data shows the average number of books on loan to individual undergraduates, PhD students and to junior lecturers from a library at a university. , it can clearly be seen PhD students individually borrow the highest number of books followed by junior lecturers, undergraduate students on average borrow the fewest books.|
|in more detail, 11 or more books are on loan to the vast majority of those studying for a doctorate compared a very small minority of those studying at undergraduate level. The proportions are 80% and 12% . , on average two thirds of undergraduate students have 1-5 books on loan, for PhD students this figure is only 5%.|
|4.||, for junior lecturers the pattern appears to be a little different 6 or more books a week are on loan to 99% of individuals in this group. , out of this group 24% borrow 11 or more books, is only a third of the figure for PhD level students is double the figure for undergraduate students.|
We also have a lesson on how to analyse pie charts here.
We will first look at some questions and example answers, then identify the useful linking words that join the ideas in each answer.
Read the following questions. How would you answer them?
- Do you live in a house or an apartment?
- Is a sixteenth birthday a big celebration in your country?
- What games do you enjoy playing?
- Where do people like to go on holiday in your country?
- Is the appearance or comfort of a jacket more important to you?
- Do you like travelling by train?
- Where do you come from?
- Are you studying or do you have a job?
- Which sport is most popular in your country?
- Do you like taking photographs?
Which answer goes with which question?
A) Yes, it is. Although, generally people celebrate their eighteenth more as that is when you are said to become an adult.
In answer A there are 3 linking words: [Although] [as] [when]
Click on a linking Word, then click again on the box below
C) Actually, you might think I’m strange but I really like jackets which keep me warm and comfortable, a good appearance is a nice bonus!
D) I’m not really into games, but I occasionally play PlayStation games with my young relatives.
E) Actually, I’m living in a dormitory at the university where I study.
F) Well, people in my country like to visit places where they can go hiking or cycling or do other outdoor pursuits.
G) Right now I’m studying at university because I only finished high school last year. I want to improve my English so I can continue my studies abroad.
H) Yes, I do. I love taking photos of people doing interesting things, although, funnily, I don’t like being in photos myself. I get very self-conscious. I like taking photos of people working or going about their daily life so I recently bought a good zoom lens which helps me to take these kinds of photos.
I) I like it except when there are delays involved.
|1.||Find one linking word in answer B):|
|2.||Find four linking words in answer C):|
|3.||Find one linking word in answer D):|
|4.||Find two linking words in answer E):|
|5.||Find one linking word in answer F):|
|6.||Find one linking word in answer G):|
|7.||Find three linking words in answer H):|
|8.||Find one linking word in answer I):|
Complete the conversation between the examiner and the candidate with the linking words from the box.
|1.||Are you good at drawing?|
|2.||Well, I really enjoy painting I’m not really any good at drawing.|
|3.||Did you learn about art at school?|
|4.||Art at school? Not really. we had art classes, we weren’t really very focused and the teachers weren’t interested in us we just messed around most of the time.|
|5.||Would you like to learn more about art?|
|6.||I would like to learn more about how to create art improve my painting skills. I’m not really interested in the history of art for when the artists were crazy or unusual, like Van Gogh, for example. From what I understand, he had an interesting life I would like to know more about him.|
|7.||Should young people study art at school?|
|8.||I went to a school wasn’t very good at teaching art and so I didn’t really gain anything from it. I do think it is important that art is part of the curriculum though, it can help students see the world in a different way and it is important that students learn more than just facts and figures at school. If a love of art and creativity is nurtured at school, it could last throughout the person’s life.|
‘I do think it is important that art is part of the curriculum’.
‘Do’ is used to make the statement more emphatic (stronger). This technique should not be used too often but if you have a strong opinion then it is correct to use an emphatic ‘do’ to explain it. Give it a try!
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About The IELTS Test
Academic Writing Task 1
Academic Writing Task 2
Band 7 Grammar
Cause And Effect
Coherence And Cohesion
Complete The Notes
Complete The Table
Data And Figures
Frequently Asked Questions
General Training Reading
General Writing Task 1
General Writing Task 2
Grammatical Range And Accuracy
Listening Section 1
Listening Section 2
Listening Section 3
Listening Section 4
Problem Solution Essay
Speaking Part 1
Speaking Part 2
Speaking Part 3
True / False / Not Given