Participle Clause with active participle:
Students practicing their reading skills everyday will see their English improve quickly.
Participle clauses are a feature of academic texts. This type of clause is used to provide the same information as other types of clauses, such as relative clauses time clauses and reason clauses, but it does so more economically (less words are used to give the same information).
Learning to notice participle clauses will improve your reading skills. If you use participle clauses in your speaking and writing it will improve your grammatical range and accuracy band score.
- Meaning: The new airlines were very successful because they were cheap and operated frequent flights.
- The active participle clause is used to replace the reason clause (because).
‘Having remained popular for several decades,...’
- Meaning: The airlines remained popular for several decades but more recently they have suffered as their operating costs have had to go up.
- A clause starting with ‘having’ is commonly used to start a sentence and shows that one action occurred before another. So, in the example, first the companies were successful and later they suffered.
|1.||Books shameful government actions are banned in certain countries.|
|2.||The minister left a briefcase important and secret state documents on the train.|
|3.||The new manager is good at her job, both friendly and hard working.|
|4.||on a wide range of different sources, the new research provided a fascinating overview of the subject.|
|5.||studied for years, he felt the time was ready for him to start a career.|
|6.||People a car to commute to work at peak times will have to pay more for city center parking from now on.|
|1.||He copied the essay from the internet. He failed the assignment.|
|the essay from the internet, he failed the assignment.|
|2.||People who frequently drink heavily are at higher risk of getting certain types of diseases.|
|People heavily are at higher risk of getting certain types of diseases.|
|3.||He owns several big houses. He is a rich man.|
|big houses, he is a rich man.|
|4.||He is not a good person for the position since he is lazy and unsociable.|
|He is not a good person for the position, and unsociable.|
|5.||The train which is arriving at platform 3 is the 3:15 for Manchester Piccadilly.|
|at platform 3 is the 3:15 for Manchester Piccadilly.|
|6.||After he was accused of corruption. He was fired.|
|After of corruption, he was fired.|
Here at IELTSTutors.org we want you to be fully prepared for the IELTS test so we dedicate a lot of time to focusing on this tricky area of grammar. Review what you know by rereading our previous post - complex noun phrases 1 - on this subject, then complete the quiz below.
Complex Noun Phrases Quiz
A company sold cars in November. The sales fell.
One sentence with a noun phrase:
[Sales of cars] fell in November.
[The number of cars sold] fell in November
[The number of cars sold by the company] fell in November
Note: The complex noun phrase is 'sales of cars' or 'the number of cars sold (by the company)'. Notice that grammatically, we use a complex noun phrase like a single noun, so we could replace the whole complex noun phrase with 'it': It fell in November. (But only of course if we have already said what 'it' is earlier in the text.)
Complete the sentences with a noun phrase
|I work for a bank. I work in the head office.|
|1.||I work in the bank.|
|I went to the meeting. I went with two colleagues.|
|2.||I went to the meeting .|
|Some people continue to work after retirement. The number is increasing.|
|3.||The number of after retirement is increasing.|
|A percentage of people complaind about the service. The percentage fell in October.|
|4.||The percentage of people about the service fell in October.|
|An offer was made by a big business. The offer was rejected.|
|5||An offer by a big business was rejected.|
|NASA has satellites. The satellites are orbiting other planets in our solar system.|
|6.||NASA has satellites other planets in our solar system.|
|I opened a savings account at a bank. Speedbank is the name of the bank.|
|7.||I opened a savings account .|
|An article is going to be published tomorrow. The article reveals a political scandal.|
|8.||An article is going to be published tomorrow political scandal.|
|My favourite movie is a science fiction film. It is based on a Japanese comic.|
|9.||My favourite film is a science fiction film Japanese comic.|
|Less young people are buying their own homes. In the past, more young people bought their own homes.|
|10.||The proportion their own homes has fallen.|
|Lots of rubbish lies on the riverbed. It is dangerous to wildlife.|
|11.||Rubbish is dangerous to wildlife.|
|Ships transport goods around the world. These ships are responsible for a lot of greenhouse gas emissions.|
|12.||Ships around the world account for a large proportion of greenhouse gas emissions.|
For more great free interactive grammar lessons, visit our Grammar Page.
First we will talk about defining relative clauses, then review non-defining relative clauses. Read the grammar tips and try the interactive practice tasks below to improve your use of this essential band 7 complex language.
What are Defining Relative Clauses?
Answer: The man is the object of the relative clause.
Why? Because the subject of the relative clause is 'I'.
Now try the exercise below.
Hint: Look for the subject after the relative clause 'who/which/that'
Are these 'subject' or 'object' relative clauses?
What are Non-Defining Relative Clauses?
Notice that the non-defining clause is separated from the main clause by two commas (,)
WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SENTENCE 1 AND SENTENCE 2 IN THE EXERCISE ABOVE?
Omitting relative pronouns in Defining clauses
Mike is the person who I met for lunch. =
Mike is the person I met for lunch.
Choose the correct relative pronoun
|1.||Have you got the money I lent you?|
|2.||Dave, had been sitting quietly, shouted out the answer.|
|3.||That is the machine converts the waste into useable material.|
|4.||The dog, they bought recently, is very funny.|
|5.||I didn’t receive the letters she said she sent me.|
|6.||The teacher didn’t appreciate the silly comments he made.|
|7.||The old elephant, had lived in the area for a long time, was well known to the villagers.|
|8.||The neighbours have complained about the speakers I bought last week.|
Note: If the interactive exercises aren't giving you a score, try refreshing the page.
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