First review what you know about complex noun phrases with this previous post.
In this lesson we will look at an IELTS Speaking Test part 2 task and study two similar answers.
One answer doesn't use complex noun phrases so there is a lot of repetition. This lowers the candidate's band score.
The second answer is a higher band response because it uses complex noun phrases to reduce repetition.
Read the IELTS Speaking Part 2 Question Topic below.
Describe a journey you have been on.
You should say:
|I’m going to tell you about a long journey which I went on last year. I took a trip 1) Kochi in Kerala to Margao in Goa in southern India. My girlfriend and I cycled the 800km route. We had great 2) sea to the west and the mountains to the east along the whole way.|
|I love southern India as there are lots of interesting things to see there. In one place we saw ancient temples 3) of pilgrims 4) came from all over India. In another area we cycled through isolated hills 5) in dense jungle. We saw monkeys and heard wild birds calling. Local people informed us that leopards and big snakes live in the jungle there. We saw a snake 6) the side of the road but it was quite small.|
|We ate lots of delicious 7) by local people. Most people 8) along the way were very friendly. We were tired by the time we got to the end of our journey. The last place we stayed was on a beautiful 9) sparkling water and swaying coconut trees. It was one of the best journeys I have ever been on and someday I would love to go back.|
We hope you can see how using complex noun phrases can improve your English. Try them out yourself by writing out your response to this question in around 150 words. Post it into the comments section below for some free feedback.
See our Grammar Page for more great free grammar lessons.
This lesson will look at passive participle clauses.
Learning to notice participle clauses will improve your reading skills. If you use participle clauses in your speaking and writing it will also improve your grammatical range and accuracy band score.
Academic Language Analysis
The telegraph, which was developed in the 1830’s and 1840’s, completely changed communication.
Example 1 is an example of a non-defining relative clause being used to add extra information to a main clause. It can be rewritten (see examples 2 and 3).
The telegraph, developed in the 1830s and 1840s, completely changed communication.
Developed in the 1830s and 1840s, the telegraph completely changed
Examples 2 and 3 are examples of passive participle clauses. They have exactly the same meaning as example 1. Notice that the meaning is passive and that the relative pronoun ‘which’ and verb ‘be’ is omitted (deleted).
Exercise 1 | Identify the Grammar
|Passive participle clause 1|
|Passive participle clause 2|
Exercise 2 | Use the Grammar
|1.||10 times, the victim miraculously survived.|
|2.||The landslide, by a week of heavy rain, destroyed the village.|
|3.||in 1895 by Wilhelm Roentgen, x-rays remain an important medical tool.|
|4.||The money on the kitchen table was intended for the shopping.|
|5.||in the robbery, the three young me face up to 5 years in prison.|
|6.||The problems by the survey will be addressed as soon as possible.|
Exercise 3 | Practice the Grammar
|The first season of Big Brother was watched by millions of people. The first season of Big Brother was the most popular reality show.|
|(1) by millions of people, the first season of Big Brother was the most popular reality show.|
|In my opinion, companies shouldn’t sell clothes which are produced in sweatshops.|
|In my opinion, companies shouldn’t sell clothes (2) in sweatshops.|
|Olive oil which is made in this particular region is supposed to be the best.|
|Olive oil (3) particular region is supposed to be the best.|
|The temple was built in 1496. The temple was dedicated to the king.|
|(4) , the temple was dedicated to the king.|
|The explosion was heard thousands of miles away. The explosion of mount Krakatoa in 1883 was one of the loudest events in history.|
|(5) , the explosion of mount Krakatoa in 1883 was one of the loudest events in history.|
|Processed food is sold in most supermarkets. Processed food is an unhealthy alternative to home cooked food.|
|(6) , processed food is an unhealthy alternative to home cooked food.|
We have two more exercises for you to try on Passive and Active Participle Clauses.
If you want to have a look at some free essay writing lessons, visit our Academic and General IELTS Task 2 Writing page.
Students practicing their reading skills everyday will see their English improve quickly.
Learning to notice participle clauses will improve your reading skills. If you use participle clauses in your speaking and writing it will improve your grammatical range and accuracy band score.
Academic Language Analysis
There are many low cost airlines today, which provide cheap travel options within Europe and Asia.
Example 1 is an example of a non-defining relative clause being used to add extra information to a main clause.
There are many low cost airlines today, providing cheap travel options within Europe and Asia.
Example 2 has exactly the same meaning as Example 1. It is considered to be a more complex sentence type as the relative pronoun has been deleted and the active participle (ing verb) has been used. Notice that the active participle can only be used if the meaning is active. Here 'low cost airlines' are the active subject.
- Meaning: The new airlines were very successful because they were cheap and operated frequent flights.
- The active participle clause is used to replace the reason clause (because).
‘Having remained popular for several decades,...’
- Meaning: The airlines remained popular for several decades but more recently they have suffered as their operating costs have had to go up.
- A clause starting with ‘having’ is commonly used to start a sentence and shows that one action occurred before another. So, in the example, first the companies were successful and later they suffered.
|1.||Books shameful government actions are banned in certain countries.|
|2.||The minister left a briefcase important and secret state documents on the train.|
|3.||The new manager is good at her job, both friendly and hard working.|
|4.||on a wide range of different sources, the new research provided a fascinating overview of the subject.|
|5.||studied for years, he felt the time was ready for him to start a career.|
|6.||People a car to commute to work at peak times will have to pay more for city center parking from now on.|
|1.||He copied the essay from the internet. He failed the assignment.|
|the essay from the internet, he failed the assignment.|
|2.||People who frequently drink heavily are at higher risk of getting certain types of diseases.|
|People heavily are at higher risk of getting certain types of diseases.|
|3.||He owns several big houses. He is a rich man.|
|big houses, he is a rich man.|
|4.||He is not a good person for the position since he is lazy and unsociable.|
|He is not a good person for the position, and unsociable.|
|5.||The train which is arriving at platform 3 is the 3:15 for Manchester Piccadilly.|
|at platform 3 is the 3:15 for Manchester Piccadilly.|
|6.||After he was accused of corruption. He was fired.|
|After of corruption, he was fired.|
IELTSTutors.org - All these IELTS lessons are completely free, so enjoy studying and let us know if you have any questions or suggestions!
About The IELTS Test
Academic Writing Task 1
Academic Writing Task 2
Cause And Effect
Coherence And Cohesion
Complete The Notes
Complete The Table
Frequently Asked Questions
General Training Reading
General Writing Task 1
General Writing Task 2
Listening Section 1
Listening Section 2
Listening Section 3
Listening Section 4
Speaking Part 1
Speaking Part 2
Speaking Part 3
True / False / Not Given