We have looked at both passive and active participle clauses and their use in complex noun phrases. In this lesson we have 2 activities to strengthen your understanding of what we have learned so far.
Go through the lessons in the links above if you need to remind yourself about the grammar of participle clauses.
|1.||The man next door is very friendly.|
|2.||The old apartment block, in by only a few families, is due to be demolished next year.|
|3.||Economic problems by corruption and a lack of investment are likely to remain divisive.|
|4.||a major protest, the government raised fuel prices.|
|5.||Harmful emissions from the burning of fossil fuels the environment is one of the major problems we face today.|
|6.||to the point of being classified dead 60 years ago, the river Thames in England is now full of life again.|
|7.||Diabetes, by the health service as one of their biggest expenditures in terms of medication, is easily avoided if a person has a healthy lifestyle.|
|8.||Many people themselves as speakers of minority languages feel more should be done to protect their linguistic heritage.|
|1.||Students who rely on digital technology too much often struggle in exams.|
|Students digital technology too much often struggle in exams.|
|2.||The original copy of the book, which was illustrated by a famous illustrator, is worth a lot of money today.|
|The original copy of the book, a famous illustrator, is worth a lot of money today.|
|3.||Businesses which prioritize the happiness and well-being of their employees are likely to see their employees work harder.|
|Businesses the happiness and well-being of their employees are likely to see their employees work harder.|
|4.||The statistics were analyzed by the government. The statistics were used to inform the new policy.|
|, the statistics were used to inform the new policy.|
|5.||The family who will fund the new building want their name over the door.|
|The family the new building want their name over the door.|
|6.||The American government prohibited alcohol in the 1920’s. The American government did nothing more than force people to break the law.|
|in the 1920’s, the American government did nothing more than force people to break the law.|
|7.||The people who invested in cryptocurrencies in the early days made a lot of money.|
|The people cryptocurrencies in the early days made a lot of money.|
|8.||Jason and the Argonauts sought after the golden fleece which was a mythical sheep’s skin.|
|by Jason and the Argonauts, the golden fleece was a mythical sheep’s skin.|
For more free band 7 grammar lessons, see our Grammar Page.
This lesson will look at passive participle clauses.
Learning to notice participle clauses will improve your reading skills. If you use participle clauses in your speaking and writing it will also improve your grammatical range and accuracy band score.
Academic Language Analysis
The telegraph, which was developed in the 1830’s and 1840’s, completely changed communication.
Example 1 is an example of a non-defining relative clause being used to add extra information to a main clause. It can be rewritten (see examples 2 and 3).
The telegraph, developed in the 1830s and 1840s, completely changed communication.
Developed in the 1830s and 1840s, the telegraph completely changed
Examples 2 and 3 are examples of passive participle clauses. They have exactly the same meaning as example 1. Notice that the meaning is passive and that the relative pronoun ‘which’ and verb ‘be’ is omitted (deleted).
Exercise 1 | Identify the Grammar
|Passive participle clause 1|
|Passive participle clause 2|
Exercise 2 | Use the Grammar
|1.||10 times, the victim miraculously survived.|
|2.||The landslide, by a week of heavy rain, destroyed the village.|
|3.||in 1895 by Wilhelm Roentgen, x-rays remain an important medical tool.|
|4.||The money on the kitchen table was intended for the shopping.|
|5.||in the robbery, the three young me face up to 5 years in prison.|
|6.||The problems by the survey will be addressed as soon as possible.|
Exercise 3 | Practice the Grammar
|The first season of Big Brother was watched by millions of people. The first season of Big Brother was the most popular reality show.|
|(1) by millions of people, the first season of Big Brother was the most popular reality show.|
|In my opinion, companies shouldn’t sell clothes which are produced in sweatshops.|
|In my opinion, companies shouldn’t sell clothes (2) in sweatshops.|
|Olive oil which is made in this particular region is supposed to be the best.|
|Olive oil (3) particular region is supposed to be the best.|
|The temple was built in 1496. The temple was dedicated to the king.|
|(4) , the temple was dedicated to the king.|
|The explosion was heard thousands of miles away. The explosion of mount Krakatoa in 1883 was one of the loudest events in history.|
|(5) , the explosion of mount Krakatoa in 1883 was one of the loudest events in history.|
|Processed food is sold in most supermarkets. Processed food is an unhealthy alternative to home cooked food.|
|(6) , processed food is an unhealthy alternative to home cooked food.|
We have two more exercises for you to try on Passive and Active Participle Clauses.
If you want to have a look at some free essay writing lessons, visit our Academic and General IELTS Task 2 Writing page.
Students practicing their reading skills everyday will see their English improve quickly.
Learning to notice participle clauses will improve your reading skills. If you use participle clauses in your speaking and writing it will improve your grammatical range and accuracy band score.
Academic Language Analysis
There are many low cost airlines today, which provide cheap travel options within Europe and Asia.
Example 1 is an example of a non-defining relative clause being used to add extra information to a main clause.
There are many low cost airlines today, providing cheap travel options within Europe and Asia.
Example 2 has exactly the same meaning as Example 1. It is considered to be a more complex sentence type as the relative pronoun has been deleted and the active participle (ing verb) has been used. Notice that the active participle can only be used if the meaning is active. Here 'low cost airlines' are the active subject.
- Meaning: The new airlines were very successful because they were cheap and operated frequent flights.
- The active participle clause is used to replace the reason clause (because).
‘Having remained popular for several decades,...’
- Meaning: The airlines remained popular for several decades but more recently they have suffered as their operating costs have had to go up.
- A clause starting with ‘having’ is commonly used to start a sentence and shows that one action occurred before another. So, in the example, first the companies were successful and later they suffered.
|1.||Books shameful government actions are banned in certain countries.|
|2.||The minister left a briefcase important and secret state documents on the train.|
|3.||The new manager is good at her job, both friendly and hard working.|
|4.||on a wide range of different sources, the new research provided a fascinating overview of the subject.|
|5.||studied for years, he felt the time was ready for him to start a career.|
|6.||People a car to commute to work at peak times will have to pay more for city center parking from now on.|
|1.||He copied the essay from the internet. He failed the assignment.|
|the essay from the internet, he failed the assignment.|
|2.||People who frequently drink heavily are at higher risk of getting certain types of diseases.|
|People heavily are at higher risk of getting certain types of diseases.|
|3.||He owns several big houses. He is a rich man.|
|big houses, he is a rich man.|
|4.||He is not a good person for the position since he is lazy and unsociable.|
|He is not a good person for the position, and unsociable.|
|5.||The train which is arriving at platform 3 is the 3:15 for Manchester Piccadilly.|
|at platform 3 is the 3:15 for Manchester Piccadilly.|
|6.||After he was accused of corruption. He was fired.|
|After of corruption, he was fired.|
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