Our last key grammar lesson was Singular and Plural Nouns. Now we will look at Verb Substitution.
You can use substitution to make your writing more cohesive. This will improve your band score for Coherence and Cohesion.
Read the two sentences below. The sentences are similar but different.
Which sentence is better?
Sentence 1 is a better sentence. Rather than repeating the verb phrase having children, the phrase doing so is substituted.
Read the two sentences below. Again, the sentences are similar but different.
Which sentence is better?
Sentence 2 is a better sentence. To avoid repeating the verb phrase quote others, we use the verb phrase do so instead.
Verb Substitution Rule
|This is an important game. There will be a big crowd. (as)|
|1.||this is an important will be a big crowd.|
|She joined a conversation class. She wants to improve her spoken English. (since)|
|2.||She joined a conversation class to improve her spoken English.|
|I like dancing. I went to the annual dance festival in Berlin. (because)|
|3.||I like to the annual dance festival in Berlin.|
|There should be tougher punishments for law breakers. Crime levels are rising. (since)|
|4.||There should be tougher punishments for law breakers are rising.|
|People are more focused on their careers these days. People have children later in life. (as)|
|5.||are more focused on their careers have children later in life.|
|Private vehicles are more comfortable than public transport. Private vehicles are more popular than public transport. (because)|
|6.||vehicles are more comfortable than public are more popular.|
5. Why do scientists think the climate is changing?
6. How will technology change education in the future?
Note: of is the preposition.
Note: On and of are the prepositions
Note: to is the preposition.
Another prepositional phrase we can use is 'as a result of...' Do you know any more?
- After the preposition, a noun or noun phrase is used.
- The preposition and noun are separated from the main clause by a comma.
Remember, because of is followed by a noun phrase whereas because is followed by a clause (subject and verb)
Because of the rain, we are not going to go out.
'the rain' is a noun phrase.
Because it is raining, we are not going to go out.
'it is raining' is a clause (subject + verb)
The meaning of these two sentences is the same, but the grammar is different.
Exercise 2 | Reason clauses and prepositional phrases
Complete the sentences
Exercise 3 | Writing Task 2
Identify one or two serious ones and suggest ways that governments and individuals can tackle these problems.
Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience.
Write at least 250 words.
Paragraph 2 – One problem (include examples and background ideas) and one suggested solution with the reason why you think it would be effective.
Paragraph 3 - One problem (include examples and background ideas) and one suggested solution with the reason why you think it would be effective.
Paragraph 4 – Conclusion (summarise main points)
We have a lesson that teaches the recommended structure for this essay type here.
We have 2 previous interactive exercises that can help you learn more about studying vocabulary in texts:
Vocabulary in Context 1
Vocabulary in Context 2
Read the text below and then complete the task below.
Now you can read the word definitions and scan for them in the text. Place the word you find in the box by the definition by clicking/touching the word, then clicking/touching the box.
The Biology of Coccinellids (Ladybirds)
Various larger species of Coccinellidae attack caterpillars and other beetle larvae. Several genera feed on various insects or their eggs; for example, Coleomegilla species are significant predators of the eggs and larvae of moths such as species of Spodoptera and the Plutellidae. Larvae and eggs of ladybirds, either their own or of other species, can also be important food resources when alternative prey are scarce. As a family, the Coccinellidae used to be regarded as purely carnivorous, but they are now known to be far more omnivorous than previously thought, both as a family and in individual species; examination of gut contents of them reveals residues of pollen and other plant materials. Besides the prey they favour, most predatory coccinellids include other items in their diets, including honeydew, pollen, plant sap, nectar, and various fungi. The significance of such non-prey items in their diets is still under investigation and discussion.
Apart from Coccinellidae that have a general diet of insects and occasional substances of botanical origin , many Coccinellidae do prefer certain prey types. This makes some of them particularly valuable as agents in biological control programs as they can be used to target certain pests that eat crops.
Certain species of coccinellids are thought to lay extra, infertile eggs with the fertile eggs, apparently to provide a backup food source for the larvae when they hatch. The ratio of infertile to fertile eggs increases with scarcity of food at the time of egg laying by the mother. This strategy helps to ensure the new generation have adequate food immediately after they hatch from eggs.
|1.||An animal which is hunted by a predator. (paragraph 1)|
|2.||The young form of an insect or beetle. (paragraph 2)|
|3.||An adjective which means important. (paragraph 2)|
|4.||A creature which eats both meat and plants. (paragraph 2)|
|5.||A synonym for the verb ‘show’. (paragraph 2)|
|6.||A four-word phrase meaning that something comes from a plant. (paragraph 3)|
|7.||A three-word phrase meaning an alternative supply of nourishment. (paragraph 4)|
|8.||A lack of something. (paragraph 4)|
Up next is Vocabulary in Context 4!
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About The IELTS Test
Academic Writing Task 1
Academic Writing Task 2
Cause And Effect
Coherence And Cohesion
Complete The Notes
Complete The Table
Frequently Asked Questions
General Training Reading
General Writing Task 1
General Writing Task 2
Listening Section 1
Listening Section 2
Listening Section 3
Listening Section 4
Problem Solution Essay
Speaking Part 1
Speaking Part 2
Speaking Part 3
True / False / Not Given